China Squeezes in the International Frontier of Research on New Nuclides Great Success in Scientific Research Achieved by the Max-Planck Partner's Group under Shanghai Astronomical Observatory BAMSS Plans to Create Inter-disciplinary Research Centers 2,000-Year Records of Atmospheric Methane Obtained
Heavy Mass, Large-sized Nickelous Sulfate Crystals Passed Appraisal China Accomplished its 18th Expedition to the Antarctic Home  
Basic Research

China Squeezes in the International Frontier of Research on New Nuclides

Among the five nuclide regions, i.e. light proton drip line region, light rare earth region, trans-uranium neutron-deficient region, heavy mass neutron-rich region and super heavy element region, Chinese scientists have synthesized and identified 23 new nuclides for the first time in the world. This achievement indicates that China has occupied an important position in the frontier of nuclear physics research, especially in the research and synthesis of new nuclides.

In 1987, scientists from the Institute of Modern Physics, CAS proposed the R&D project of "research on the synthesis of new nuclides using heavy (or light) ions, and their decay, nuclear structure and generating mechanism". The proposal was submitted to the CAS in 1989 and passed appraisal as "the best project proposal". It was approved as a key R&D project of the CAS. Following a unique approach and methodology, the scientists managed to overcome the difficulties of low yield and short life span in the heavy mass neutron-rich region, and successively synthesized 8 new nuclides: Er-175, Hf-185, Hf-186, Hg-208, Hg-209, Th-237, Th-238, Pa-239. Together with the Pt-202 nuclide synthesized by the Shanghai Institute of Atomic Nucleus, CAS, they occupied half of the total nuclides newly synthesized by the international community at the same period. The achievement was awarded a National Second-Class Prize of the 1999 in Natural Sciences.

In the light rare earth proton drip line region, 10 new nuclides (including Ce-121) were successfully synthesized and identified, and the ground state spin and parity of 4 nuclides (such as Nd-125) were preliminarily determined. The complete decay scheme of 10 nuclides including Pr-128 was established and the decay spectrum of the protons of Ru-89 observed.

In the trans-uranium neutron-deficient region, a new nuclide, namely Am-235, was markedly synthesized and differentiated by using the reaction product transporting technique and chemical separation flow, making a feature of high flow intensity, large cross section, multiple targets and high efficiency.

In the light proton drip line region, the scientists synthetized and identified two new nuclides, P-25 and Se-65, and studied for the first time the singular decay performance of Kr-69 (a drip line nucleus).

In the super heavy element region, a new super heavy nuclide -259, was synthesized and determined, implying that China has entered the foremost and hottest field of nuclear physics in the research and synthesis of new nuclides, and it has made an important step forward toward the synthesis and research of super heavy elements.

Great Success in Scientific Research Achieved by the Max-Planck Partner's Group under Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

The macroscale structure of the universe and the formation of galaxies, a project presided by Dr. Yipeng JING under the "Hundred Talents Program" of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, passed its terminal assessment on 28 June 2002.

The assessment reached the unanimous conclusion that Dr. Yipeng JING has achieved a series of high-quality innovative research outcomes in such areas as high-resolution numerical simulation of the formation of galaxies, the macroscale structure of the universe, dark corona, dark matter, gravitational lens and so on, under the auspices of the "Hundred Talents Program". Some of the work is at the internationally leading level. Over the past two years, Yipeng JING has published 14 quality papers cited by SCI, established a high-level laboratory for numerical simulation, and brought up a professional research team comprising masters, doctors and postdoctoral fellows. He has also conducted extensive international cooperation; in particular, his collaboration with the Germany Max-Planck Institute of Astrophysics and Tokyo University has led to important results. After the assessment, Prof. Markl, President of the Max-Planck Society, was fully convinced that Dr. JING would become a leading scientist in his field of research.

BAMSS Plans to Create Inter-disciplinary Research Centers

The Beijing Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science (BAMSS), CAS, on the occasion of its 50th anniversary, announced an ambitious plan to create a series of interdisciplinary research centers, such as the Research Center for Financial Mathematics, the Research Center for Bio-informatics, the Research Center for Wavelet Analysis and Application, and so on. "Such establishments comply with the strategic needs of the state and will promote intercross of various disciplines", said the President of BAMSS.

Before that, BAMSS had established an Open Laboratory for Graph Theory and Combination, a Research Center for Uncertainty Decision-making, a Center for Information Security and a Research Center for Dynamic Systems.

2,000-Year Records of Atmospheric Methane Obtained

By use of a self-designed high-precision extracting & analysing system of methane in ice core air bubbles, Prof. Tandong YAO and Dr. Baiqing XU with the Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS have conducted investigation, tests and experimental analysis of the ice core in Dasuopu, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and obtained the high-resolution records of atmospheric methane at middle and low latitudes in the past two millenniums. This is a breakthrough development in the research on greenhouse gases, posing a challenge to the human knowledge on the mechanism of interactions between atmospheric greenhouse gases and global climatic change.
The study on the records of methane in the Dasuopu Ice Core, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau indicates that the content of methane in the atmosphere has radically increased since 1850: 140% up over the past 150 years. It clearly shows a negative increase of methane emission because of human activities during the two world wars. This research provides a basis for quantitative evaluation of the distribution and change of the global atmosphere.

Heavy Mass, Large-sized Nickelous Sulfate Crystals Passed Appraisal

The research on heavy mass, large-sized nickelous sulfate crystal materials (shortened as the NSH project), undertaken by the Research Group of Genbo SU with the Fujian Institute of Material Structure (FIMS), CAS, passed expert appraisal on June 14, 2002.

The NSH crystal is an excellent material for ultraviolet filters, with favourable spectrum performances, high UV transmittance and narrow bandwidth. It is widely used for UV filters and sensors, and has broad prospects of development & application in the fields of laser spectrum analysis and UV detection.

Using the falling temperature technique of water solution, G.B. Su's research group generated a large cylindrical monocrystal measuring ? 40 x 40mm, whose size reached the criterion required for making UV filters. The principal performance of the crystal lies in its UV (~200nm) transmittance. An innovative feature of the research work of FIMS is the invention of a new method for producing NSH crystals in a guided mode, which has a crystal growth rate and efficiency 6 times higher than the conventional technique adopted by foreign countries. Crystals produced with this method have splendid optical performances equal to those products in the international market, but cost less.

China Accomplished its 18th Expedition to the Antarctic

China has recently accomplished its 18th investigation into the South Pole. The interdisciplinary expedition, which began in November 2001, was composed of more than 130 scientists from various institutions, including the Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (CAS), China Polar Research Institute, the Institute of Oceanology (CAS), the University of Science and Technology of China, and so on. The purposes of the mission were: to make glaciological investigation into the ice mantle; to accomplish ice core drilling and automatic installation of a meteorological station; to conduct survey on the geological events in the Southeast Pole; to conduct geological survey on the Quaternary glaciers; to make an ecological survey of Euphausia in the south Oceania and marine geochemical survey in Fe; and to investigate and extract the periglacial lake deposits in the Zhongshan Station area.

According to sources, the drilling of deep ice core at the highest point of the South Pole icecap__ Dome A, which was accomplished by the expedition, will provide a concrete evidence for research into the process of climatic change of the Elisabeth Zone on the ice mantle of the Antarctic in the past 500 years.